What is bias?
Bias is the inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair. Cognitive bias is when one makes a bias through the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
Types of cognitive biases to discuss in ToK:
Introspection illusion, prejudice, confirmation bias, in attentional blindness, hindsight bias, availability bias, affect heuristic, the halo effect, sunk cost fallacy, the just world fallacy and attribution bias.
Today, I will be discussing about Attribution bias:
Attribution is the inferences that people make about the causes of events or behaviours. Attribution bias is when people have a tendency to assume or guess that a person’s actions or their results depend on what ‘kind’ of person that person is rather than on the social and environmental forces influencing the person.
Over the course of a typical day a person probably makes numerous attributions about their own behavior as well as that of the people around them. This act may be either a conscious or unconscious act. Even though one may be conscious of making attributions about themselves or others, they are still most likely to continue doing so.
Example of attribution bias:
The most typical example of attribution bias is when you get a poor grade on a quiz, you might blame the teacher for not adequately explaining the material, completely dismissing the fact that you didn’t study as much as you should or could have. However, when a classmate gets a great grade on that same quiz, you might attribute their good performance to luck, neglecting the fact that they most likely studied a lot for that test.
Pros on attribution bias:
- Raises self esteem
Cons on attribution bias:
- Self- serving